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SafetyproceduresatVirginGa|博盈官方网站
来源:博盈首页    发布时间:2020-11-11 18:01:01
本文摘要:Safety procedures at Virgin Galactic, whose spacecraft crashed on a test flight last week, had too few safeguards to prevent a potential catastrophe, one of the world’s leading space safety experts has said.维珍银河(Virgin Galactic)太空飞船上周在飞行中测试中失事后,一位世界一流的太空安全性专家回应,该公司安全性程序的确保措施过于较少,足以避免潜在的灾难。

确保

Safety procedures at Virgin Galactic, whose spacecraft crashed on a test flight last week, had too few safeguards to prevent a potential catastrophe, one of the world’s leading space safety experts has said.维珍银河(Virgin Galactic)太空飞船上周在飞行中测试中失事后,一位世界一流的太空安全性专家回应,该公司安全性程序的确保措施过于较少,足以避免潜在的灾难。Tommaso Sgobba, a former head of flight safety for the European Space Agency, said industry best practice calls for operators to build in “two-failure tolerance”, or sufficient safeguards to survive two separate, unrelated failures – two human errors, two mechanical errors or one of each. He believes that SpaceShipTwo’s systems fell short of that standard.欧洲航天局(European Space Agency)前飞行中安全性负责人托马索斯戈巴(Tommaso Sgobba)回应,行业最佳实践中拒绝运营商内置“双重容错”,即创建不足以抵挡两个不涉及故障的确保措施,这两个故障有可能都是人为故障,也有可能都是机械故障,亦或是人为及机械故障各一个。他指出“太空船2号”(SpaceShipTwo)约将近这个标准。

According to investigators, Virgin Galactic’s SpaceShipTwo disintegrated after a pilot wrongly unlocked the “feathering” mechanism – which slows the craft during its descent – too early. The mechanism then activated even though the separate lever to deploy it was not pulled. The craft’s co-pilot died in the subsequent crash.调查结果,维珍太空船2号是在一位飞行员太早关卡“顺桨”装置(用作太空船迫降时滑行)后解体的。随后这个装置被启动,即便用作进行顺桨的另一个手柄未被冲向。太空船随后失事,机长杀于此次事故。The feathering mechanism – which is vital to slow the aircraft but potentially deadly when it is accelerating – was typical of the safety systems that need to withstand human errors and mechanical failures, analysts said.顺桨装置对飞船滑行至关重要,但在飞船加快时启动它有可能是可怕的。

分析人士认为,顺桨装置必须忍受人为失误和机械故障,构成一个典型的安全性系统。Mr Sgobba said SpaceShipTwo’s systems, which required two levers to be moved before the wings went in to a “feathered” configuration, appeared to be designed to be “one-failure tolerant” – to stay safe in the event of a single pilot error or mechanical failure. But the system had not worked that way. The design would not be acceptable in other safety critical-industries, such as aeroplane manufacture, he added.斯戈巴回应,太空船2号拒绝在机翼转入顺桨姿势前夹住两个手柄,但其系统奇特被设计成“单重容错”,即不能在一次飞行员犯规或一次机械故障的情况下维持安全性。

但系统未如此发挥作用。他补足说道,这种设计是会为其他安全性关键的行业(比如飞机制造)所拒绝接受的。Loren Thompson, an adviser to US aerospace companies, said other safety-critical US businesses, including suppliers to Nasa, required at least the “two-fault tolerance” Mr Sgobba described. He said it was a “significant concern” that some private space operators applied less stringent standards.美国航空航天企业的顾问劳伦汤普森(Loren Thompson)回应,美国其他安全性关键企业,还包括美国国家航空航天局(Nasa)的供应商在内,最少都必须超过斯戈巴所谈的“双重容错”。

他说道部分私人航天运营商使用较严格标准是个“令人担忧的根本性问题”。Virgin Galactic, which is part of Sir Richard Branson’s Virgin Group, said the locking mechanism for the feathers represented two separate safeguards. There was a “procedural” safeguard, as the lock was meant to stay in place until after the most dangerous, early part of the flight, and a “mechanical” safeguard, in the form of the lock itself.维珍银河公司隶属于理查德布兰森爵士(Sir Richard Branson)的维珍集团(Virgin Group),该公司回应顺桨装置的瞄准机构代表了两个有所不同的确保措施。一个是“程序性”确保,瞄准机构不应维持不一动,直到飞船童年最危险性的早期飞行中阶段之后,另一个是“机械式”确保,即该机构本身。

Mr Sgobba said procedural rules could be seen as a safeguard in some circumstances, but “they are considered the least desirable”.斯戈巴回应,在某些情况下程序规则可以被看做确保措施,但“它们被指出是最不是非的”。


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